Relevance of methodological work for the functionality of the integrating discipline in Odontology
COMUNICATION

 

Relevance of methodological work for the functionality of the integrating discipline in Odontology

 

Pertinencia del trabajo metodológico para la funcionalidad de la disciplina integradora en Estomatología

 

 

Lilian Toledo Reyes1, Esther Díaz Velis Martínez2, María Elena Cobas Vilches3

1 University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara. Cuba. Email: mariaelena@infomed.sld.cu
2 University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara. Cuba. Email: estherdm@infomed.sld.cu
3 University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara. Cuba. Email: mariaelena@infomed.sld.cu

 

 


ABSTRACT

The odontology career has gone through different curricula. At present it is going through the plan D; its design shows a discipline organization which favors the formation of a broad profile professional. Where comprehensive odontology is the leading discipline in the curriculum. This paper aims to provide some notes on how to guide the methodological work in this subsystem and ensure an organization according to the logic of the profession. It is suggested to increase the methodological work by means of integrating formative strategies linking teaching tasks with an interdisciplinary approach. It's insisted on the linking with the curricular strategies, the objectives of the academic years and remaining curriculum disciplines. These, among other aspects, represent valid considerations to enhance the role of the integrating discipline in the training process.

MeSH: Methodological work, integrative discipline, Dental studies, education, medical.


RESUMEN

La carrera de Estomatología ha transitado por diferentes planes de estudios. En la actualidad se desarrolla el Plan de Estudios D, el cual muestra un diseño de organización disciplinar que favorece la formación de un profesional de perfil amplio y que asume para este fin la Estomatología Integral como eje conductor en el currículo. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar algunos apuntes acerca de cómo guiar el trabajo metodológico en este subsistema y asegurar una organización acorde con la lógica de la profesión. Se sugiere incrementar la labor metodológica mediante estrategias formativas integradoras vinculando tareas docentes con enfoque interdisciplinario. Se insiste, además, en la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, los objetivos de los años académicos y las restantes disciplinas del currículo. Estos, entre otros aspectos, constituyen consideraciones válidas para afianzar el papel de la disciplina integradora en el proceso formativo.

DeCS: Trabajo metodológico, disciplina integradora, carrera de Estomatología, educación médica.


 

 

The term integration is applied to different activities, both educational and professional: teaching, assistance and research; or certain areas within a curriculum as are those for the so-called basic sciences and clinical sciences, but it is common that such a conception is used referring to a set of teaching content.

The authors find relevant Rossell´s definition quoted by Vicedo Tomey1 expressing: "Integration is an inherent property of any system, involving action or effect of integrating, ie unites separated into coherent whole elements in terms of education through integrating the fundamental contents of various disciplines they are interrelated and lose their individuality to form a new interdisciplinary synthesis unit with a higher degree of generalization".

The steady advance of science and technology and its application in medical practice, the social character of medicine and its focus on community health care aspects, have promoted the emergence of transformations in the learning processes of the medical Sciences. All this calls for the periodic review of the conceptual and structural frameworks of medical education to be consistent with the prospective development of society and the science.2,3

The idea "of knowledge integration" is not new, just give a thoughtful look at any body of studies associated with human activity and shows how it is essential to use simultaneously, the contents of different scientific disciplines to solve problems pertaining to a sphere.4

Curricular organization has to ensure proper longitudinal and cross-sectional integration of the disciplinary content in medical sciences careers, in order to realize the aspiration of a broad profile professional.5,6

The Odontology career is not out of this problem and has gone through different curricula. In the academic year 2011-2012 began to be implemented in Villa Clara the curriculum corresponding to Study Plan D7, which advocates the formation of a broad profile professional that should solve health problems common to the oral-facial complex that occur in the community, comprehensive modes of odontological performance have been defined for each case.

In its design, this plan shows that the academic discipline as a subsystem must ensure certain educational objectives and is influenced by the educational career strategy, and the remaining curricular strategies. This curriculum level should ensure the correspondence of its content with the overall objectives of the profile and can ensure organization according to the logic of the profession.

Comprehensive Odontology is the leading discipline of the training process; the integration logic of its content meets the requirements of the profession, and mastery of their output goals ensures modes of performance of the graduates from a position of integration with respect to the remaining disciplines and subjects of the career.8

In its program own subjects in the exercise of the profession are grouped and their objectives are not focused on finding links that allow from each of the different subjects the development of training strategies to meet the model of dentists´ broad profile professional working in the Primary Health Care.

This discipline takes place during each semester of the career and it has 20 subjects in correspondence with the contents and skills they develop,7 and run under the principle of linking study with work and employment of the researching method.9 Its object of study is consistent with the work object of the profession, it is eminently practical because the student assimilates the content by solving real problems interacting with patients and their health-disease process, where they must overcome the theoretical content of the subjects that comprise it.

Despite the short time of operation of this curriculum gaps are seen in its implementation, regardless its proper structuring in the curriculum; therefore, future efforts should be directed at strengthening the work of the discipline teaching staff and the remaining teaching staffs in order to achieve methodological work with a system approach in the career.

To this respect, the teaching-learning process should ensure compliance with the objectives of the program and that its work on methodological training ensure the development of integrating training strategies for teaching tasks interdisciplinary approach, the continuous updating of contents and a correct political-ideological, essential guidance for the preparation of the teaching staff, with workshops to discuss current issues and organize scientific and methodological events to disseminate the results of this work.

It should not be forgotten the development of an implementation that considers its links with the curriculum strategies, objectives of academic years, and the other disciplines of the curriculum.

An important role play instructional, demonstrative and open methodological classes, and other forms of methodological work to enable the treatment of various topics, such as: a multidisciplinary approach in addressing the content and use of the clinical method.

A relevant option is the development of interdisciplinary teaching staff meetings where disciplines of the basic cycle and other general education disciplines participate. It is appropriate to plan activities that focus on the system of values declared in the career and that encourage its development gradually, taking into account the contents of each subject that make up the discipline and incorporating new aspects to this work to the extent that the student advance in its learning process. It must insist on the elimination of deficiencies identified in compliance with the general objectives of the discipline and the implementation of actions to achieve the continuous improvement of the quality of the teaching-learning process through systematic work balances. It will be essential involvement in the design of the curriculum, which must start from the discipline teaching staff which will be responsible for enunciating new proposals to improve the curriculum and plan program offerings for proper, optional and elective courses according to the needs and interests of the students and in correspondence with the oral health picture of the community.

Undoubtedly, the effective performance of the functions of the integrating discipline favors the search for links among the subjects that comprise it, and of them with the other subjects in the curriculum; it encourages meaningful learning and leads to a better articulation of the system of knowledge and skills, encouraging the consolidation of the modes of performance representing better training of future professionals and increasing quality in oral health assistance of the population, as an expression of the university and society link, which cannot be outside the curriculum.

 

Declaration of conflict of interest

The authors declare that they don´t have conflicts of interest.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

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6. Castañeda Licón MT, Rodríguez Uribe HE, Castillo Ruiz O, Daniel López E, Rodríguez JM. El razonamiento clínico desde el ciclo básico, una opción de integración en las ciencias médicas. EDUMECENTRO [Internet]. 2015 [citado 25 Oct 2015];7(1):[aprox 8 p.] Disponible en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2077-28742015000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

7. Ministerio de Salud Pública. La formación del Estomatólogo General Básico. Plan de Estudios D de la carrera. Características generales. La Habana: Editorial Ciencias Médicas; 2011.

8. González Rodríguez S, Pedroso Ramos L, Rosales Reyes SÁ. Contribución de la Disciplina Estomatología Integral al Análisis de la Situación de Salud Bucal. Rev Haban Cienc Méd [Internet]. 2015 [citado 5 Dic 2015];14(2):[aprox. 10 p.]. Disponible en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1729-519X2015000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

9. López Espinosa GJ, Quintana Mugica R, Rodríguez Cruz O, Gómez López L, Pérez de Armas A, Aparicio Manresa G. El profesor principal y su preparación para diseñar instrumentos de evaluación escritos. EDUMECENTRO [Internet]. 2014 [citado 25 Oct 2015];6(2):[aprox. 9 p.]. Disponible en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2077-28742014000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

 

 

Submitted: January, 3 2016.
Accepted: October, 7 2016.

 

 

Lilian Toledo Reyes. University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara. Cuba. Email: mariaelena@infomed.sld.cu

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