Some considerations on the teaching of the History of Cuba in higher education
RESEARCH PAPER

 

Some considerations on the teaching of the History of Cuba in higher education

 

Algunas consideraciones sobre la enseñanza de la Historia de Cuba en educación superior

 

 

Ileana García López1, Maritza Amechazurra Oliva2, Noemy La Rosa Hernández3

1 "Lidia Doce Sánchez" Medical Sciences University site. Sagua La Grande. Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences Cuba. E-mail: ileanagl@infomed.sld.cu
2"Lidia Doce Sánchez" Medical Sciences University site. Sagua La Grande. Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences Cuba. E-mail: maritzaao@infomed.sld.cu
3 "Lidia Doce Sánchez" Medical Sciences University site. Sagua La Grande. Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences Cuba. E-mail: noemyrh@infomed.sld.cu

 

 


ABSTRACT

The inclusion of the History of Cuba in higher education responds to the need to contribute to the formation of a historical culture in all professionals as part of their humanistic formation, by guaranteeing the strengthening of their patriotic and anti-imperialist values, among others. The authors of this paper set out as an objective to analyze the need for their teaching to assume science as a method for students to make objective assessments of historical phenomena, and warn about the need for the exchange of arguments and arguments in the classes. Collective reflection in organic unity with the principles that are preserved and taught to defend.

MeSH: teaching, education medical, education, higher.


RESUMEN

La inclusión de la Historia de Cuba en la educación superior responde a la necesidad de contribuir a la formación de una cultura histórica en todos los profesionales como parte de su formación humanística, al garantizar el fortalecimiento de sus valores patrióticos y antimperialistas, entre otros. Los autores de la presente comunicación se propusieron como objetivo analizar la necesidad de que su enseñanza asuma la ciencia como método para que los alumnos hagan valoraciones objetivas sobre los fenómenos históricos, y alertan sobre la necesidad de que en las clases predominen el intercambio de argumentos y la reflexión colectiva en unidad orgánica con los principios que se preservan y se enseñan a defender.

DeSC: enseñanza, educación médica, educación superior.


 

 

In the contemporary world, culture has been renewed and diversified at vertiginous rates. There is a directly proportional relationship between technological advances and cultural contents, which implies changes in the ways and means of teaching and learning it. This must lead to a change in education, since it constitutes a social and historical class process, aimed at the transmission and assimilation of the treasured culture.1,2

Aquilating the value of history as an essential part of the cultural education of all young people enrolled in higher education, the inclusion of the History of Cuba in this level of education responds to the need to contribute to the formation of a historical culture in all professionals as part of their humanistic formation, by guaranteeing the strengthening of their patriotic and anti-imperialist values, among others.

To transform their teaching-learning process with a developer character, it is necessary to appropriate the cultural heritage accumulated by the older generations and transmit it to each student, according to their level of development and their conditions.

The teaching of history is not simple accumulation of information; it is about getting students to make scientific assessments of historical phenomena. If only the result of knowledge is taught to the learners and the faculty of elaborating it is not cultivated, the humanistic, scientific and creative objective will not be fulfilled. Scientific knowledge must be provided in an active, conscious and emotional way; for this, it has to equip the student with general procedures that apply in any specific situation, in such a way that it reaches a high intellectual performance.

Contemporary man tries to discover where he comes from with the hope of knowing where he is going; his aspirations related to the path he has left to walk stimulate his penetration for what has been left behind.3

The essential thing is to prepare the students in the essential knowledge and the scientific method of analysis, which implies, in addition to an adequate selection of content, to provide the teacher with a teaching methodology that encourages the development of the logical thinking of the students. Teachers should lead students towards those answers that help them obtain scientific knowledge and offer them the possibility to understand their time and the meaning of life. If man is not a carrier of values aimed at achieving ethical performance, then it will not be possible for him to put his knowledge at the service of society and for the benefit of society.4

It is then referred to the need to resort to historical sources to enhance values, as a strength to defend the revolutionary gains and preserve the identity of the Cuban nation; but if the methods are not changed, if we do not go to new sources of knowledge, taking advantage of the potential of information and communication technologies, then cold academicism will persist; in this sense it coincides with what Garófalo expresses when he expresses ... "That the memory of the struggles of our people does not become something academic, that it does not become something like a cold story ..." 5

The authors consider that the teaching of the History of Cuba in higher education claims not to give up in the effort to improve everything concerning it, since it is one of the main carriers of historical memory and knowledge of events, events, feelings, ideals, norms, customs and indigenous values that characterize the Cuban nation and serves as a basis to reinforce the culture and identity. That is why they agree in addition that the professor of History of Cuba must be a sower of ideas, from the task that involves a synthesis of science, art and passion. Argue, teach to argue and convince are tasks of learning this subject, which is a source of patriotic education, anti-imperialist and value formation for human betterment. It is an essential tool for the battle of thought of these times.

This is where teachers have a great challenge; within the educational purposes, its teaching must be a daily expression of a culture of dialogue. That is where the road of conviction passes: by the exchange of arguments and collective reflection in organic unity with the principles that are defended and taught to defend

If the teacher conceives that the teaching of history is a synthesis of science, art and passion, he knows that the one who exhibits speaks with the word, with the gestures, with the gaze. Hence the importance of achieving coherence between oral and corporal language,6 and the correct use of educational tools to achieve an efficient teaching-learning process, which is so necessary for the education of current and future generations.

The motivation for the study of history is closely related to the challenges that the exhibition is capable of posing to the exercise of thought -what is different from the purely memory teaching- but, precisely, this contribution must also be seen in its most important sense. broad, that is, in the person who is capable of listening to something that makes him think. In harmony with the above, Martí7 explains in his works the didactic significance of the different tones and nuances of the voice in oral language; they have an effective pedagogical meaning insofar as they indicate what is most significant and important of what one wants to deal with. These nuances and tones help to distinguish the essential from the secondary, to highlight the most important issues, to specify partial summaries, to leave well expressed and clear the ideas that should remain as conclusions of the exhibition, while preventing the speech historical be monotone.

When Martí7 expresses: "... the way of saying enhances the value of what is said ..." relates ideas with amenity as an essential quality of oral classes or expositions; later he adds that they live by animation and enthusiasm. Seen with a critical sense, it is warning against boredom, monotony, the unattractive ways of exposing that lead to fatigue and the demotivation of those who listen, a problem not always solved more than 100 years of those admirable words.

Today it is necessary to transform the teaching of the History of Cuba, to maximize the human and political values it advocates, to motivate research, to stimulate knowledge of national traditions. In this sense it is necessary to transform the educational act into a democratic process, where communication and protagonism are the cornerstone of learning and an inexhaustible source of resources that feed the historical culture of educators and students, to enrich and interpret history Cuban, with nuances consistent with its legacy and the ideals of the Revolution.

 

Declaration of interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

1. Leal García E. El enfoque integral en la formación de valores de los futuros profesionales de la salud. EDUMECENTRO [Internet]. 2010 [citado 22 Feb 2015];2(1):[aprox. 10 p.]. Disponible en: http://www.revedumecentro.sld.cu/index.php/edumc/article/view/60/125

2. Leal García E. Formar valores a través de la defensa de la identidad nacional y otras alternativas cubanas. EDUMECENTRO [Internet]. 2013 [citado 20 Abr 2015];5(1):[aprox. 11 p.]. Disponible en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2077-28742013000100017

3. Carrazana Contreras UO, Morales Jiménez I, Jiménez Lastre I. Propuesta metodológica con enfoque interdisciplinario para el perfeccionamiento de la asignatura Historia de Cuba I. EDUMECENTRO [Internet].2012 [citado 25 Feb 2015];4(2):[aprox. 12 p.]. Disponible en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2077-28742012000200010

4. Horruitiner Silva P. La universidad cubana: el modelo de formación. La Habana: Editorial Ciencias Sociales; 2006.

5. Garófalo Fernández N. Programa de la disciplina Historia de Cuba. Carreras de Medicina y Estomatología. La Habana: Minsap; 2009.

6. Pendás Díaz H. Los medios de enseñanza de la Historia. Algunas consideraciones y sugerencias de trabajo. En: Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación; 2012.

7. José Martí: Clases orales. Obras completas. T6. La Habana: Editorial Imprenta Nacional de Cuba; 1960.

 

 

Submitted: March 11 2016.
Accepted: May 30 2017.

 

 

Ileana García López. "Lidia Doce Sánchez" Medical Sciences University site. Sagua La Grande. Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences Cuba. Cuba. E-mail: ileanagl@infomed.sld.cu

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