Impact of the systemic approach of the teaching process on the development of the competent personality


Impact of the systemic approach of the teaching process on the development of the competent personality


Impacto del enfoque sistémico del proceso docente en el desarrollo de la personalidad competente



Natacha Rivera Michelena

Havana University of Medical Sciences. Cuba. E-mail:




A university teaching management based on a didactic concept that assumes a systemic approach to the teaching-learning process in function to the orientation of the scientific-technical and human knowledge, embodied in systems of teaching tasks as a basic criterion, propitiates the development of personality qualities In which he learns, such as: critical thinking, creativity, integrity, regulation and behavioral stability, among others, which contributes to the strengthening of higher motives in the student; this becomes a fundamental condition in the formation and/or consolidation of the professional competences in the future graduates. The present article assumes these considerations and proposes a systemic approach as an important resource that allows a level of analysis essential in the direction of the pedagogical process.

MeSH: Systemic management, professional competence, teaching-learning process, education, medical.


Una gestión docente universitaria sustentada en una concepción didáctica que asuma un enfoque sistémico del proceso docente educativo en función de la orientación de los saberes científico-técnico y humanos, concretados en sistemas de tareas docentes como criterio básico, propicia el desarrollo de cualidades de la personalidad del que aprende, tales como: pensamiento crítico, creatividad, integridad, regulación y estabilidad del comportamiento, entre otras, lo cual contribuye al fortalecimiento de motivos superiores en el estudiante; ello se torna una condición fundamental en la formación y/o consolidación de las competencias profesionales en el futuro egresado. El presente artículo asume estas consideraciones y propone un enfoque sistémico como importante recurso que permite un nivel de análisis esencial en la dirección del proceso pedagógico.

DeCS: Administración sistémica, competencia profesional, proceso docente educativo, educación médica.



A person is considered to be competent when prepared with the necessary sufficiency to take part with others in the performance of the activity in which it participates. Competence means: «take part with ...», «to do with others» and «to be able to do with others», because each one is qualified to contribute in that joint effort.1

The competent professional required by contemporary society for higher education is not born with the human being, but it is indispensable to take into account the social relationship existing among men, and specifically the activity that in this interrelation is carried out. In this sense, it is essential the role of the teacher who has the maximum responsibility in the preparation of a graduate with a scientific-technical qualification to cope with its time with an appropriate citizen training; hence a systemic approach to the teaching process allows a better understanding of this interaction.

For the effectiveness of the training work in the medical sciences universities, it is a fundamental condition not to lose sight of the systemic interrelation among education-teaching-learning-training; this will allow us to solve the planning, organization, management and control of the teaching process successfully considering the health problems that future professionals must solve.

As shown in figure 1, the essence of the teaching-learning process becomes an immediate way to achieve the necessary qualitative changes that should characterize the competent professional to whom it is aspired.

The educational force that carries an effective direction of the formative process finds its theoretical foundation in one of the essential principles of contemporary psychology, which states that the development of personality takes place in the scene of activity and communication that distinguish human being, which are expressed in the living and educational conditions with which it interacts. In medical education must be based on a system of influences based on the enrichment and/or formation of solid professional motives that, ultimately, guarantee the modes of action (abilities) and presuppose a deepening on the contents, depending on basic and general health issues that must be solved by a competent medical professional.

Based on the foundations of the psychological and pedagogical sciences, in relation to the role of the teacher during the teaching activity and its approach towards the comprehensive development of the learner´s personality, we consider the formative importance of the work of pedagogical management1-5. In this regard, the considerations of González Rey et al.6 agree with the above and have established guidelines that should be taken into account, as an essential criterion, the formative force of the individual and collective work to be performed by the student in order to contribute to its comprehensive development.
From the intellectual point of view, a competent medical professional must be able to penetrate the essence of the objective reality with which it interacts, since the progress of an empirical thought is insufficient in the present time. The analysis of these elements clarifies the methodological criteria that allow exercising an effective teaching management, considering how the formation of this professional is not only achieved with the improvement of behaviors but also of abilities, where the student's activity plays a fundamental role and the teaching management of the professor.

This means that the effectiveness of the contents assimilation process (skills-knowledge) is guaranteed to the extent that it is structured based on the proper problems that it will face in its future sphere of work, its demands, difficulties and problems to be solved.

But how to understand the development of the personality in the conditions of the formative process? What qualities should be formed?

The answer to these questions is vital, because the teacher has to know the essential characteristics of the personality to be able to direct the process of development of professional competences in the student.

From the conception of the personality category it is possible to construct an operational definition that contributes to the effective realization of a formative work in response to contemporary social demands.6 Personality is the expression of a maximum level of conscious-volitional regulation of behavior, which implies to consider that it constitutes the superior degree of the human being activity. This assessment does not exclude the existence of other levels, but emphasizes the importance of the interaction of man with the reality in which he lives, so that the didactic conditions constitute a favorable framework for the achievement of this end.

The theoretical foundations analyzed allow us to understand the unitary and systemic character of personality. The psychic qualities taken in the abstract "can not" serve as direct objectives of education, since they receive a true discovery only in the context of the comprehensive character that characterizes the personality category; these are presented forming a "knot" that is only possible to "untie" from the analysis, abstraction and generalization of the professor, to be able to achieve a formative work in function to the graduate´s profile of the studied career.

Due to its degree of essentiality, a system of personality qualities:

  • Individuality.
  • Criticism.
  • Independence.
  • Creativity.
  • Integrity.
  • Active conscious nature.
  • Stability.
  • Regulatory nature.

The development of these qualities finds a suitable space during the teaching management and in the very content of the education that must be planned, structured and perfected based on the competences foreseen in the graduate´s profile of the course that is taken, if considered the non-antagonistic contradiction of the formative process, related to the interaction among the skills, knowledge and habits acquired and those that must be achieved. This is framed, in the medical career, by the establishment of basic-clinical and clinical-basic linkage.

From these ideas it can be assumed that the improvement of the management of the teaching process is an essential element to develop a scientifically organized didactic work and that considers the formative force of the teaching task as base cell; this leads to a methodological deepening that guarantees that the pedagogical process is directed to the cognitive activity of the student in interaction with their motivations and affective processes in general, which will promote their interest in the study.6

The systemic approach of the teaching process as well as the projection of teaching tasks that stimulate cognitive independence, creative individuality, integrity, stability, conscious and active character and the regulation of behavior in the student, brings him closer to his future professional life where the critical valuation of the work done and that of its working group is gaining a special meaning, which has a satisfactory repercussion on the development of a competent personality.


Declaration of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.



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2. Ortiz Torres E. Fundamentos Psicológicos del Proceso Educativo Universitario [tesis]. Holguín: Universidad de Holguín "Oscar Lucero Moya"; 2006.

3. Zaldívar Carrillo ME, Sosa Oliva Y, López Tuero J. Definición de la flexibilidad del pensamiento desde la enseñanza. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación [Internet]. 2006 [citado 25 May 2016];37(4):[aprox. 5 p.]. Disponible en:

4. Vega M. Introducción a la Psicología Cognitiva. La Habana: Félix Varela; 2005.

5. Sanz T, Rodríguez ME. El enfoque histórico-cultural: Su contribución a una concepción pedagógica contemporánea. En: Tendencias pedagógicas en la realidad educativa actual. Colectivo de autores. La Habana: CEPES; 2014.

6. González Rey F, Mitjans Martínez A. La personalidad. Su educación y desarrollo. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación; 1989.



Submitted: December 19 2016.
Accepted: January 25 2017.



Natacha Rivera Michelena. Havana University of Medical Sciences. Cuba. E-mail: